Wen-Chung TSAI MD

Pioneer of musculoskeletal ultrasound

Musculoskeletal ultrasound


Wen-Chung Tsai, MD, PhD is a board certified physiatrist pioneering in Musculoskeletal Ultrasound and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection. He is currently the director and professor of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR) at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou. The Department of PMR at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou is an important center that provides fellowship training not only in rehabilitation medicine but also musculoskeletal ultrasound.

Dr. Tsai graduated from Kaohsiung Medical University in 1991 and completed his residency in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at National Taiwan University Hospital. He got his PhD degree in medical sciences from Chang Gung University in 2002. Since then he has published several academic articles on the subject of tendon regeneration in top-ranked, internationally acclaimed journals. He has also been invited to speak at the Department of bio-engineering, UC San Diego, USA in 2008.In Dr. Tsai's research, he found that PRP increased the proliferation of tendon cells and muscle cells in the treatment tendon and muscle ruptures. With the aid of ultrasound guided technology, Dr. Tsai can now effectively treat soft tissue diseases and sports injuries. He uses ultrasound technology to guide injections such as: steroids to the treatment of soft tissue disease; hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis; Botulism Toxin A injection to control spasticity of stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. Recently, Dr. Tsai has also been using ultrasound guided PRP injection to treat various sports injuries such as tendon injury, muscle rupture and degenerative diseases of joints. It has also been proven that ultrasound-guided treatments can greatly reduce the recurrence rate of soft tissue lesions in patients.


musculoskeletal ultrasound

Success Cases

Performed more than 10,000 cases of ultrasound examinations and treatments.

Major Publications

  1. WC Tsai, TG Wang*, HW Liang, JS Lai: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: A common cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly-A case report. Journal of Rehab Med Assoc ROC, 1995;23(1):91-96.
  2. WC Tsai, JS Lai, TG Wang*: Treatment of emotionalism with fluoxetine during rehabilitation. Scand J Rehab Med 1998;30:145-149. (Renamed: J REHABIL MED) (SCI; IF=1.882; Sports science 20/72)
  3. TC Hsu, CL Wang*, WC Tsai, JK Kuo, FT Tang. Comparison of the mechanical properties of the heel pad between young and elderly adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79:1101-1104. (SCI; IF=2.184; Sports science 13/72)
  4. WC Tsai, TG Wang, CZ Hong*: The myofascial trigger points in the ipsilateral gluteal muscles associated with pyogenic sacroiliitis-A case report. J Musculoskel pain 1999;7:73-82. (SCI; IF=0.327; Rehabilitation 30/33)
  5. WC Tsai, CL Wang*, TC Hsu, FT Tang, FJ Hsieh: The mechanical properties of the heel pads in plantar heel pain syndrome. Foot Ankle Int 1999;20:663-668. (SCI; IF=1.101; Orthopedics 33/56)
  6. WC Tsai, CL Wang, FT Tang*, TC Hsu, KH Hsu, MK Wong. Treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis with ultrasound-guided steroid injection. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81:1416-1421. (SCI; IF=2.184; Sports science 13/72)
  7. WC Tsai, MF Chiu, CL Wang, FT Tang*, MK Wong. Ultrasound evaluation of plantar fasciitis. Scand J Rheumatol 2000;29:255-259. (SCI; IF=2.507; Rheumatology 14/22)
  8. PhD thesis. The effect of dexamethasone on tendinofascial tissue: form clinical practice to molecular mechanism. 2002
  9. WC Tsai, FT Tang, MK Wong, HC Yen, JH S. Pang*. Decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen is associated with dexamethasone inhibition of the proliferation of rat tendon fibroblasts. J Rheumatol 2002;29:2397-2402. (SCI ; IF=3.854; Rheumatology 10/26)
  10. WC Tsai, FT Tang, Mk Wong, JH S. Pang*. Inhibition of tendon cell migration by dexamethasone is correlated with reduced alpha-smooth actin gene expression: a potential mechanism of delayed tendon healing. J Orthop Res 2003;21:265-271. (SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  11. Wong AMK, Leong CP, Su TY, Yu SW, Tsai WC, Chen CPC. Clinical Trial of acupuncture for patients with spinal cord injuries. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2003;82:21-27 (SCI; IF=1.556; Sport sciences 32/72) 
  12. WC Tsai, FT Tang, CC Hsu, YH Hsu, JH S. Pang*, CC Shiue. Ibuprofen inhibition of tendon cell proliferation and upregulation of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21CIP1 J Orthop Res 2004;22:586-591. (SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  13. CPC Chen, SFT Tang, TZ Hsu, WC Tsai, HP Liu, MJ Chen*, Date E, HL. Lew. Ultrasound guidance in caudal epidural needle placement. Anesthesiology 2004;101:181-184. (SCI; IF=5.124; Anesthesiology 2/22)
  14. SFT Tang, CPC Chen, MJL Chen, WH Hong, TY Yu, WC Tsai*, Improvement of muscle strength in osteoarthritic knee patients after intraarticular knee injection of hyaluronon. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84:274-277. (SCI; IF=1.556; Sport sciences 32/72)
  15. WC Tsai, CC Hsu, FT Tang, SW Chou, YJ Chen, JH S. Pang*. Ultrasound stimulation of tendon cell proliferation and upregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Journal of Orhtopedic Research 2005 Jul;23(4):970-6.  (SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  16. Hsu CC, Tsai WC, Chen CPC, Yeh WL, Tang SFT*, Kuo JK. Ultrasonographic examination of the normal and injured posterior cruciate ligament. J Clin Ultrasound. 2005;33:277-282. (SCI; IF=0.910; Acoustics 13/28)
  17. CC Hsu, WC Tsai, CPC Chen, TH Shau, CL Wang*, MJL Chen, KJ Chang. Effects of aging on the plantar soft tissue properties under the metatarsal heads at different impact velocities. Ultrasound Med Biol 2005;31:1423-1429. (SCI; IF=2.169; Acoustics 4/28)
  18. WC Tsai, CC Hsu, CPC Chen, MJL Chen, MS Lin, JH S. Pang*. Ibuprofen inhibition of tendon cell migration and down-regulation of paxillin expression. J Orthop Res 2006;24:551-558. (SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  19. MJL Chen, HL Lew, TC Hsu, WC Tsai, WC Lin, SFT Tang, YC Lee, RCH Hsu, CPC Chen*. Ultrasound-guided shoulder injections in the treatment of subacromial bursitis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2006;85:31–35. (SCI; IF=1.556; Sport sciences 32/72)
  20. WC Tsai*, CC Hsu, CPC Chen, MJL Chen, TY Yu, YJ Chen. Plantar fasciitis treated with local steroid injection: Comparison between sonographic and palpation guidance. J Clin Ultrasound 2006;34:12-16. (SCI; IF=0.910; Acoustics 13/28)
  21. WC Tsai*, JH S. Pang, CC Hsu, FT Tang, MS Lin, CF Hu. Ultrasound stimulation of types I and III collagen expression of tendon cell and upregulation of transforming growth factor-β. J Orthop Res 2006;24:1310-1316. (SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  22. HC Chen, FL Chang, JF Rachel Lu, NK Chu, WC Tsai, LN Shih, YC Lau, FT Tang*. The Impact of NHI Co-payment Policy on the Utilization Pattern of Hospital Outpatient Rehabilitation Services. Tw J Phys Med Rehabil 2006;34:73-80.
  23. Hsu CC*, Tsai WC, Chen CPC, Chen MJL, Tang SFT, Shih L: Ultrasonographic examination for inversion ankle sprains associated with osseous injuries. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2006;85:785-792. (SCI; IF=1.556; Sport sciences 32/72)
  24. WC Tsai*, JH S. Pang, CC Hsu, SW Chou, CY Chung, J Chen. The effects of celecoxib on migration, proliferation and collagen expression of tendon cells. Connective Tissue Research 2007;48:46-51. (SCI; IF=1.552; Orthopedics 25/56)
  25. Hsu CC, Tsai WC, Shau YW*, Lee KL, Hu CF. Altered Energy Dissipation Ratio of the Plantar Soft Tissues under the Metatarsal Heads in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Pilot Study. Clinical Biomechanics 2007;22:67-73. (SCI; IF=1.759 ; Sport sciences 21/56)
  26. WC Tsai, CC Hsu, CY Chung, MS Lin, SL Li, JHS Pang*. The pentapeptide KTTKS promoting the expressions of type I collagen and transforming growth factor-β of tendon cells. J Orthop Res 2007;25:1629-1634. (SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  27. JW Cheng, Simon FT Tang, TY Yu, SW Chou, Alice MK Wong, WC Tsai*, Sonographic features of soft tissue tumors in the hand and forearm. Chang Gung Med J 2007;30:547-554. 
  28. SC Huang, WC Tsai, SW Chou, CM Wang*, Alice MK Wong. Autonomic dysreflexia in ankylosing spondylitis with double spinal cord injuries: a case report. Tw J Phys Med Rehabil 2007;35:171-177.
  29. Wu CY, Chen CL, Tsai WC, Lin KC*, Chou SH. A randomized controlled trial of modified constraint-induced movement therapy for elderly stroke survivors: changes in motor impairment, daily functioning, and quality of life. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88:273-278. (SCI; IF=2.184; Sports science 13/72)
  30. Hsu CC, WC Tsai, CL Wang, SH Pao, YW Shau*, YS Chuan. Microchambers and Macrochambers in heel pads: are they functionally different? J Appl Physiol 2007;102:2227-2231. (SCI; IF=3.658; Sport sciences 1/71)
  31. WC Tsai, Hsu CC, FT Tang, Alice, MK Wong, YC Chen, JHS Pang*. Ciprofloxacin mediated cell proliferation inhibition and G2/M cell cycle arrest in rat tendon cells. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2008;58:1657-1663. (SCI; IF=7.332; Rheumatology 2/26)
  32. WC Tsai*, Jannie YS Chen, JHS Pang, CC Hsu, MS Lin, LW Chieh. Therapeutic ultrasound stimulation of tendon cell migration. Connective Tissue Research 2008;49:367-373. (SCI; IF=1.552; Orthopedics 25/56)
  33. WM Chang, SW Chou, WH Hong, WC Tsai, JY Ke, MK Wong*. The comparison of volunteer work and regular exercise for the promotion of health among the aged. Tw J Phys Med Rehabil 2008;36:45-51.
  34. WC Tsai, CC Hsu, HC Chen, YH Hsu, MS Lin, CW Wu, JHS Pang*. Ciprofloxacin-mediated inhibition of tenocyte migration and down-regulation of focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. European Journal of Pharmacology 2009;607:23-26. (SCI; IF=2.585; Pharmacology & Pharmacy 102/236)
  35. YF Chang, WC Tsai, CY Chung, YC Lin, YT Chen, CY Wu*, KC Lin. Effects of modified constraint-induced therapy versus bilateral Movement training on upper extremity performance in patients with chronic stroke: a kinematic analysis. Tw J Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 37(1): 19-30.
  36. CC Hsu, WC Tsai, TY Hsiao, FY Tseng, YW Shau, CL Wang*, SJ Lin. Diabetic effects on microchambers and macrochambers tissue properties in human heel pads. Clinical Biomechanics 2009;24:682-686. (SCI; IF=1.759; Sport sciences 21/56)
  37. Jannie YS Chen, TM Chiang, YC Wu, CY Huang, CC Hsu, WC Tsai*. Pre-operative localization before removal of a chest wall needle by ultrasonography. Tw J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;37:201-206.
  38. WC Tsai, CC Hsu, HN Chang, YC Lin, MS Lin, JH S. Pang*. Ibuprofen Up-regulates Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1, -8, -9 and -13 without Affecting Expressions of Types I and III Collagen in Tendon Cells. J Orthop Res 2010;28:487-91. (SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  39. CC Hsu, WC Tsai, CPC Chen, YM Lu, JS Wang. Effects of negative pressures on epithelial tight junctions and migration in wound healing. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2010;299:528-34.
  40. CP Chen, AM Wong, CC Hsu, WC Tsai, CN Chang, SC Lin, YC Huang, CH Chang, SF Tang. Ultrasound as a screening tool for proceeding with caudal epidural injections. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:358-63.
  41. WC Tsai, CC Hsu, CPC Chen, HN Chang, Alice MK Wong, MS Lin, JHS Pang*. Ciprofloxacin up-regulates tendon cells to express matrix metalloproteinase-2 with degradation of type I collagen. J Orthop Res 2011;29:67-73.(SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  42. Clement SH Yang, HC Chen, CC Liang, TY Yu, David Hung, TC Tseng, WC Tsai*. Sonographic measurements of the thickness of the soft tissues of the interscapular region in a population of normal young adults. J Clin Ultrasound 2011;39:78-82. (SCI; IF=0.910; Acoustics 13/28)
  43. WC Tsai, HN Chang, TY Yu, CH Chien, LF Fu, FC Liang, JHS Pang*. Decreased proliferation of ageing tenocytes is associated with down-regulation of cellular senescence-inhibited gene and up-regulation of p27. J Orthop Res 2011:29;1598-1603 (SCI; IF=3.112; Orthopedics 4/56)
  44. WC Tsai*, Simon FT Tang, FC Liang. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound on tendons-An   
  45. invited review. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90-68-73.(SCI)
  46. WC Tsai*, YM Yang. Fluoroquinolone-asssociated tendinopathy. Chang Gung Med J 2011;34:461-465.
  47. Chen CP, Lew HL, Tsai WC, Hung YT, Hsu CC. Ultrasound-guided injection techniques for the low back and hip joint. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Oct;90(10):860-7. (SCI)
  48. CH Chang, WC Tsai, MS Lin, YH Hsu, JH Su Pang. The promoting effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on tendon healing involves tendon outgrowth, cell survival, and cell migration.  n J Appl Physiol 110:774-780, 2011. (SCI) 
  49. JW Cheng, WC Tsai, TY Yu, KY Huang. Reproducibility of sonographic measurement of thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia. J Clin Ultrasound 2012;40:14-19.(SCI)
  50. Chang HN, Pang JH, Chen CP, Ko PC, Lin MS, Tsai WC*, Yang YM. The effect of aging on migration, proliferation, and collagen expression of tenocytes in response to ciprofloxacin. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:764-8.(SCI)(*correspondent)
  51. WC Tsai, CC Hsu, JH S. Pang, MS Lin, YH Chen, FC Liang. Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration with up-regulation of   dynamin II expression. PLoS ONE. May 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 5 | e38235
  52. CF Hu, Carl PC Chen, WC Tsai, LL Hu, CC Hsu, ST Tseng, YW Shau. Quantification of skeletal muscle fibrosis at different healing stages using sonography: a morphologic and histologic study in an animal model. J Ultrasound Med 2012; 31:43–48.
  53. TY Yu, JHS Pang, KPH Wu, MJL Chen, CH Chen, WC Tsai*. Aging is associated with increased activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in tenocytes. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013, 14:2 (*correspondent)
  54. Chen CM, Chen JS, Tsai WC*, Hsu HC, Chen KH, Lin CH. Effectiveness of device-assisted ultrasound-guided Steroid Injection for Treating Plantar Fasciitis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print]
  55. Chen CM*, Hsu HC, Tsai WC, Chang CH, Lin CH, Chen KH, Lai YH. The “Bodily Pain” Scale of the Short Form-36 Questionnaire is a Predictor of Outcome in Patients who Receive Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection for Plantar Fasciitis—A Preliminary Study. J Musculokelet Pain 2014;22:335-340
  56. Chen CP, Hsu CC, Pei YC, Chen RL, Zhou S, Shen HC, Lin SC, Tsai WC. Changes of synovial fluid protein concentrations in supra-patellar bursitis patients after the injection of different molecular weights of hyaluronic acid. Exp Gerontol. 2014;52:30-5.
  57. JW Cheng, WC Tsai, TY Yu. Gender-related effect of Aging on the sonographic appearance of plantar fascia. J Musculoskelet Pain 2014;22: 33-37.
  58. WC Tsai, JW Cheng, JL Chen, CY Chen, HN Chang, YH Liao, MS Lin, JH S Pang. Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte proliferation in association with increased NO synthesis and upregulation of PCNA and cyclins..Lasers Med Sci 2014 Jul 9;29(4):1377-84.
  59. Chang CH, Tsai WC, Hsu YH, Pang JH. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 enhances the growth hormone receptor expression in tendon fibroblasts. Molecules. 2014;19:19066-77.
  60. Yang-teng Fan, Ching-yi Wu, Wen-chung Tsai, and Keh-chung Lin. Effects of lateralized light flash and color on unilateral neglect.  Disabil Rehabil 2015.
  61. Yu TY, Pang SJH, Wu KPH, Lin LP, Tseng WC, Tsai WC*. Platelet-rich plasma increases the proliferation of tendon cells by modulating Stat3 and p27 to up-regulate the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell proliferation. 2015;48:413-20.(correspondence).
  62. Wen-Chung Tsai, Tung-Yang Yu, Li-Ping Lin, Mei-Ling Cheng, Cheng-Lun Chen, Jong-Hwei S. Pang. Prevention of Simvastatin-Induced Inhibition of Tendon Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Progression by Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate. Toxicol Sci. 2016; 149:326-34.
  63. Wen-Chung Tsai, Tung-Yang Yu, Li-Ping Lin, Miao-Sui Lin, Yi-Cheng Wu, Chih-Hao Liao, Jong-Hwei S. Pang. Platelet rich plasma releasate promotes proliferation of skeletal muscle cells in association with upregulation of PCNA, cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases. Platelets 2016.
  64. Wen-Chung Tsai, Tung-Yang Yu, Li-Ping Lin,3 Mioa-Sui Lin,1 Ting-Ta Tsai, Jong-Hwei S. Pang. Platelet rich plasma promotes skeletal muscle cell migration in association with up-regulation of FAK, paxillin, and F-Actin formation. J Orthop Res 2017, Feb


  1. 2010 (5th ed) Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice (by Delisa):Chapter 7: Diagnotic ultrasound.